From there he moved on to an inquiry into the role of the social scientist as both researcher and actor (Intervention Theory and Method (1970); Inner Contradictions of Rigorous Research (1980) and Action Science (1985) – with Robert Putnam and Diana Mc Lain Smith).
His fourth major area of research and theorizing – in significant part undertaken with Donald Schön – was in individual and organizational learning and the extent to which human reasoning, not just behavior, can become the basis for diagnosis and action (Theory in Practice (1974); Organizational Learning (1978); Organizational Learning II (1996) – all with Donald Schön).
After his service he studied psychology at Clark University, where he met Kurt Lewin.
He obtained his MA in 1947, and joined the Kansas University, where he obtained his MSc in Psychology and Economics in 1949.
He also received a Doctor of Science award from Yale University in 2011.
Chris Argyris' early research explored the impact of formal organizational structures, control systems and management on individuals and how they responded and adapted to them.
He has also developed this thinking in Overcoming Organizational Defenses (1990) and Knowledge for Action (1993).